The principle of operation of vacuum therapy
The dressing system of open wounds under sub-atmospheric pressure consists of the evolution of the traditional open wound surgical procedure, which Is the filling of the same with gauzes, associated or not with a drainage. The vacuum system subjects the dressing, usually made with a sponge or gauze, to negative pressure in order to continuously remove the secretions and necrotic debris that collect in the cavity, with the aim of substantially improving cleansing and accelerating the healing process.
It is actually a rather simple technique: in principle a wet gauze or a sponge with open cell structure is placed in the wound cavity together with a tube drain with numerous side holes in the end. The entire area is then covered with a transparent self-adhesive membrane, which adheres to the healthy skin around the edges of the wound so that the entire cavity of the wound is airtight.
The free end of the drainage tube is connected to an appropriately limited and adjustable vacuum source (-25 / – 250 mmHg), interposing a reservoir in the circuit where the drained secretions are collected. The gauze or sponge ensures that the entire wound surface is uniformly exposed to the effect of negative pressure, preventing the drainage holes from clogging up in direct contact with the tissues.
Precisely because of its ability to effectively remove secretions, the system greatly reduces the frequency of dressings, especially in infected or exuding wounds in which the traditional dressing with gauze and plaster is quickly dunked with material and pus.